This manual is an early draft that still needs significant editing work to become readable.
GNU Taler is an open protocol for an electronic payment system with a free software reference implementation. GNU Taler offers secure, fast and easy payment processing using well understood cryptographic techniques. GNU Taler allows customers to remain anonymous, while ensuring that merchants can be held accountable by governments. Hence, GNU Taler is compatible with anti-money-laundering (AML) and know-your-customer (KYC) regulation, as well as data protection regulation (such as GDPR).
This tutorial targets exchange operators, auditors and governments who want to run the auditor to verify that a GNU Taler exchange is operating correctly.
Operating a GNU Taler auditor means that you (henceforth: auditor) have a business relationship with (or regulatory authority over) a GNU Taler exchange operator (henceforth: exchange). Your objective is to verify that the exchange is operating correctly, and if not to alert the exchange, the state or even the public about any missbehavior to limit financial losses to other parties.
To perform this duty, you will need at least (read-only) access to the bank transactions of the exchange, as well as a continuously synchronized replica of the exchange’s database.
For this, every auditor needs to operate a Postgres database. The data collected will include sensitive information about Taler users, including withdrawals made by consumers and income received by merchants. As a result, the auditor is expected to provide high confidentiality for the database. In general, the auditor does not have to offer high-availability: the exchange operator can continue operations without the auditor, and the auditor can catch up with it later when the auditor’s systems are restored. However, of course any downtime would provide a window of opportunity for fraud and should thus be minimized. Finally, the auditor’s copy of the exchange’s database can be useful as a backup to the exchange in case the exchange experiences a loss of its own copies. Thus, business agreements between auditor and exchanges may include availability requirements as well.
Then, with the software provided, auditors can verify the cryptographic proofs collected by the exchange and detect if any improper bank transactions are made. There are additional tasks which an auditor should perform. While this manual only focuses on the audit of the exchange’s database and wire transfers with the existing tools, a proper auditor should also perform the following tasks:
Taler is a pure payment system, not a new crypto-currency. As such, it operates in a traditional banking context. In particular, this means that in order to receive funds via Taler, the merchant must have a regular bank account, and payments can be executed in ordinary currencies such as USD or EUR. Similarly, the exchange must interact with a bank. The bank of the exchange holds the exchange’s funds in an escrow account. As a result, exchanges operate in a regulated environment, and auditors provide a crucial oversight function.
Auditors should generally be independent third parties that verify that the exchange operates correctly. However, an exchange is likely to also run the auditing logic, as it is also used to calculate the exchange’s profits, risk and liabilities. Furthermore, it’s usually a good idea to not only rely on third parties to verify one’s own work.
The Taler software stack for an auditor consists of the following components:
DBMS Postgres The auditor requires a DBMS to stores a local copy of the transaction history for the Taler exchange, as well as for its own internal bookkeeping and checkpointing. The DBMS is assumed to be assure the auditor of the database invariants (foreign key, uniqueness, length restrictions). Should the exported data from the exchange fail to be imported due to constraint violations, this is an immediate serious concern that must be addressed manually. The software only verifies the content of a well-formed exchange database (well-formed with respect to SQL). For now, the GNU Taler reference implemenation only supports Postgres, but the code could be easily extended to support another DBMS.
The auditor Web service The auditor is expected to provide a public Web service. At this REST API, merchants can (probabilistically) provide deposit confirmations, allowing the auditor to detect if an exchange is underreporting deposits.
In the future, the Web service should be extended to allow customers and merchants to automatically upload cryptographic proof of other violations of the specification by the exchange. However, for now it is assumed that the respective cryptographic proofs are reported and verified manually — as with a well-behaved exchange this should obviously be a rare event.
The main binary of this component is the
The (main) auditor
The main auditor logic checks the various signatures, totals up the
amounts and checks for arithmetic inconsistencies. It also
computes the expected bank balance, revenue and risk exposure of the
exchange operator. The main script of this component is the
This script invokes several helper binaries sequentially. Production
users may want to modify the script to run those binaries in parallel,
possibly using different privileges (as only the
needs access to the wire gateway).
taler-helper-auditor-wire auditor verifies that the bank
transactions performed by the exchange
were done properly. This component must have access to the bank account
of the exchange, as well as to a copy of the exchange’s database.
taler-auditor script invokes the various helpers, each generating
a JSON report. It then invokes the
script to combine those JSON files with a Jinja2 template into a
LaTeX report. Finally,
pdflatex is used to generate a PDF report.
The resulting report includes performance data, reports on hard violations (resulting in financial losses) and reports on soft violations (such as the exchange not performing certain operations in a timely fashion). The report also includes figures on the losses of violations. Careful reading of the report is required, as not every detail in the report is necessarily indicative of a problem.
Please install the following packages before proceeding with the exchange compilation.
Except for the last two, these are available in most GNU/Linux distributions and should just be installed using the respective package manager.
The following instructions will show how to install libgnunetutil and the exchange (which includes the code for the auditor).
Before you install libgnunetutil, you must download and install the dependencies mentioned above, otherwise the build may succeed but fail to export some of the tooling required by Taler.
To download and install libgnunetutil, proceed as follows:
$ git clone https://git.gnunet.org/gnunet/ $ cd gnunet/ $ ./bootstrap $ ./configure [--prefix=GNUNETPFX] $ # Each dependency can be fetched from non standard locations via $ # the '--with-<LIBNAME>' option. See './configure --help'. $ make # make install
If you did not specify a prefix, GNUnet will install to
which requires you to run the last step as
To download and install the GNU Taler exchange, proceeds as follows:
$ git clone git://git.taler.net/exchange $ cd exchange $ ./bootstrap $ ./configure [--prefix=EXCHANGEPFX] \ [--with-gnunet=GNUNETPFX] $ # Each dependency can be fetched from non standard locations via $ # the '--with-<LIBNAME>' option. See './configure --help'. $ make # make install
If you did not specify a prefix, the exchange will install to
/usr/local, which requires you to run the last step as
Note that you have to specify
--with-gnunet=/usr/local if you
installed GNUnet to
/usr/local in the previous step.
The auditor’s configuration works the same way as the configuration of other
Taler components. See for example the exchange manual for details on the
configuration and the
taler-config configuration tool. This section
discusses configuration options related to the auditor.
The auditor works with one signing key to certify that it is auditing a particular exchange’s denomination keys.
The following values are to be configured in the section [auditor]:
The auditor can serve HTTP over both TCP and UNIX domain socket.
The following values are to be configured in the section [auditor]:
Bank accounts for the auditor are configured in exactly the same way as bank accounts for the exchange. See the exchange documentation for details.
The option db under section [auditor] gets the DB backend’s name the
exchange is going to use. So far, only
db = postgres is supported. After
choosing the backend, it is mandatory to supply the connection string
(namely, the database name). This is possible in two ways:
[auditor] ... DB = postgres ... [auditordb-postgres] CONFIG = postgres:///auditordemo
If an exchange runs its own auditor, it may use the same database for the auditor and the exchange itself.
taler-auditor-dbinit tool is used to initialize the auditor’s
tables. After running this tool, the rights to CREATE or DROP tables
are no longer required and should be removed.
Before GNU Taler wallets will happily interact with an exchange,
the respective auditor’s public key (to be obtained via
must be added under the respectivy currency to the wallet. This
is usually expected to be hard-coded into the Taler wallet.
Users can also manually add auditors for a particular currency via a Web page offering the respective pairing.
FIXME: explain how that Web page works!
The next step is to add the exchange’s master public key and the base
URL of the exchange to the list of exchange’s audited by the auditor.
This is done using the
taler-auditor-exchange tool. The tool
basically creates the respective record in the auditor’s database.
If this step is skipped, the auditor will malfunction at all future stages with a foreign key violation, as it doesn’t know the exchange’s master public key.
taler-auditor-exchange -m $MASTER_PUB -u $EXCHANGE_BASE_URL
This step must be performed for each denomination (key) offered by the exchange. As denomination keys expire, this step has to be repeated periodically whenever new keys are created. During denomination key setup, the exchange operator obtains a blob with the data about denomination keys that the exchange operator needs to get signed by every auditor the exchange wishes (or is forced to) work with.
In a normal scenario, an auditor must have some secure business proces to receive the blob to sign (Website, manual delivery, …). Note that the blob does not contain confidential data, but signing the wrong keys would be fatal. Given the blob, the auditor would sign it using:
taler-auditor-sign -m EXCHANGE_MASTER_PUB -r BLOB -u AUDITOR_URL -o OUTPUT_FILE
Those arguments are all mandatory.
EXCHANGE_MASTER_PUBthe base32 Crockford-encoded exchange’s master public key.
BLOBthe blob generated by the
AUDITOR_URLthe URL that identifies the auditor.
OUTPUT_FILEwhere on the disk the signed blob is to be saved.
OUTPUT_FILE must then be provided to the exchange and there copied into
the directory specified by the option
AUDITOR_BASE_DIR under the section
[exchangedb]. The contents of
OUTPUT_FILE can be public and require
no special handling.
If the auditor has been correctly added, the exchange’s
response will contain an entry in the
auditors array mentioning the
The next key step for the auditor is to configure replication of the
exchange’s database in-house. The
taler-exchange-dbinit tool should be
used to setup the schema. For replication of the actual SQL data, we refer to
the Postgres manual. We note that asynchronous replication should suffice.
Note that during replication, the only statements that may be performed are INSERTS. CREATE/DELETE/DROP/UPDATE are generally not allowed. A special exception applies when an exchange runs garbage collection on old data that is no longer relevant from a regulatory point of view.
While the auditor could just run the garbage collection logic locally as well, this may interact badly with the standard Postgres synchronization mechanisms. A good solution for secure (against exchanges deleting arbitrary data) and convenient (with respect to automatic and timely synchronization) garbage collection still needs to be developed.
taler-auditor-httpd runs the required REST API for the auditor.
The service must have INSERT rights against the auditor’s database.
FIXME: note which table?
taler-auditor-httpd does not include HTTPS-support, it is
advisable to run it behind a reverse proxy that offers TLS termination.
Performing an audit is done by invoking the
taler-wire-auditor tools respectively. Both tools generate JSON
files, which can then be combined using the ``contrib/render.py’’
script into the TeX report.
This generates a file
auditor-report.pdf (in a temporary directory created
for this purpose) with all of the issues found and the financial assessment of
the exchange. The exact filename will be output to the console upon
We note that
taler-audit by default run in incremental mode. As a result,
running the commands again will only check the database entries that have been
added since the last run.
You can use
taler-auditor-dbinit -r to force a full check since the
beginning of time. However, as this may require excessive time and
interactions with the bank (which may not even have the wire transfer records
anymore), this is not recommended in a production setup.
Currently, there is no way to upgrade the database between Taler versions.
The auditor database can be re-initialized using:
$ taler-auditor-dbinit -R
However, running this command will result in all data in the database being lost, which may result in significant commputation (and bandwidth consumption with the bank) when the auditor is next launched, as it will re-verify all historic transactions. Hence this should not be done in a production system.
When an auditor detects that the private key of a denomination key pair has been compromised, one important step is to revoke the denomination key. The exchange operator includes the details on how to revoke a denomination key, so the auditor should only have to report (and possibly enforce) this step.
If all denominations of an exchange are revoked, the exchange includes logic to wire back all returned funds to the bank accounts from which they originate. If some denominations remain operational, wallets will generally exchange old coins of revoked denominations for new coins – while providing additional information to demonstrate that these coins were not forged from the compromised private key but obtained via a legitimate withdraw operation.
Most audit failures are handled by the auditor’s regular reporting functionality, creating a (hopefully descriptive) PDF report detailing the problems found.
However, there is one category of errors where this is not possible, which evolves around arithmetic overflows for amounts. Taler’s specification limits amount values to at most 2^52. If, during the auditor’s calculations, amounts are encountered that exceed this threshold, the auditor will not generate a regular report, but instead write a log statement explaining where the problem happened and exit with a status code of 42.
The most common expected case when this happens is a corrupted database. This could be because the exchange is actively malicious, or more likely due to some data corruption. The audit cannot continue until the corruption has been addressed. If it is not possible to restore a fully ‘correct’ version of the database, the suggestion is to replace the corrupted (and likely very large) amounts with zero (Note: this does not apply to the value of denominations or fees, here it is crucial that the correct amounts are restored). While an amount of zero would be incorrect, the auditing logic should be able to do its calculations with zero instead. After patching the database, the audit can be restarted. A full reset is not required, as the audit transaction is aborted when the auditor exits with code 42. After restarting, the resulting audit report is likely to indicates errors relating to the corrupted fields (such as invalid signatures, arithmetic errors by the exchange, etc.), but at least the loss/gain calculations will be meaningful and actually indicative of the scope of the error created by the corrupted data.
The auditor implementation is split into five main processes, called
taler-helper-auditor-XXX. The split was done to realize the principle of
least priviledge and to enable independent logic to be possibly run in
parallel. Only the taler-wire-auditor must have (read-only) access to the
exchange’s bank account, the other components only need access to the
All auditor subsystems basically start their audit from a certain transaction index (BIG SERIAL) in the auditor database which identifies where the last audit concluded. They then check that the transactions claimed in the exchange’s database match up internally, including the cryptographic signatures and also with respect to amounts adding up. The auditor also calculates the exchange’s profits and expected bank balances. Once all existing transactions are processed, the auditor processes store the current checkpoint in its database and generate a JSON report.
The taler-auditor shell script calls the five helpers and then uses Jinja2 with a TeX template to convert the five individual JSON reports into LaTeX and then into PDF.
The database scheme used by the exchange look as follows:
The main objective of the auditor is to detect inconsistencies. Thus, the test-auditor.sh script deliberately introduces various inconsistencies into a synthetic exchange database. For this, an “normal” exchange database is first generated using the taler-wallet-cli. Then, various fields or rows of that database are manipulated, and the auditor is let loose on the modified database. Afterwards, the test verifies that the JSON contains values indicating that the auditor found the inconsistencies. The script also verifies that template expansion and LaTeX run work for the JSON output, but it does not verify the correctness of the final PDF.
The test-auditor.sh script is written to maximize code coverage: it should cover as many code paths as possible in both the exchange and the auditor. It should also ideally create all interesting possible variations of the exchange database fields (within the constraints of the database schema).
In general, test-auditor.sh runs the tests against an “old” database where some transactions are past the due-date (and hence the aggregator would trigger wire transfers), as well as a freshly generated exchange database where the auditor would not perform any transfers. Auditor interactions can be made before or after the aggregator, depending on what is being tested.
The current script also rudimentarily tests the auditor’s resume logic, by re-starting the auditor once against a database that the auditor has already seen.