3. Merchant Backend Operator Manual

3.1. Introduction

3.1.1. About GNU Taler

GNU Taler is an open protocol for an electronic payment system with a free software reference implementation. GNU Taler offers secure, fast and easy payment processing using well understood cryptographic techniques. GNU Taler allows customers to remain anonymous, while ensuring that merchants can be held accountable by governments. Hence, GNU Taler is compatible with anti-money-laundering (AML) and know-your-customer (KYC) regulation, as well as data protection regulation (such as GDPR).

3.1.2. About this manual

This manual targets system administrators who want to install a GNU Taler merchant backend.

We expect some moderate familiarity with the compilation and installation of Free Software packages. An understanding of cryptography is not required.

3.1.3. Architecture overview

Taler is a pure payment system, not a new crypto-currency. As such, it operates in a traditional banking context. In particular, this means that in order to receive funds via Taler, the merchant must have a regular bank account, and payments can be executed in ordinary currencies such as USD or EUR. Taler can also be used as a regional currency; for such scenarios, the Taler system also includes its own stand-alone bank.

The Taler software stack for a merchant consists of four main components:

  • A frontend which interacts with the customer’s browser. The frontend enables the customer to build a shopping cart and place an order. Upon payment, it triggers the respective business logic to satisfy the order. This component is not included with Taler, but rather assumed to exist at the merchant. The Merchant API Tutorial gives an introduction for how to integrate Taler with Web shop frontends.

  • A back-office application that enables the shop operators to view customer orders, match them to financial transfers, and possibly approve refunds if an order cannot be satisfied. This component is not included with Taler, but rather assumed to exist at the merchant. The Merchant Backend API provides the API specification that should be reviewed to integrate such a back-office with the Taler backend.

  • A Taler-specific payment backend which makes it easy for the frontend to process financial transactions with Taler. This manual primarily describes how to install and configure this backend.

  • A DBMS which stores the transaction history for the Taler backend. For now, the GNU Taler reference implementation only supports PostgreSQL, but the code could be easily extended to support another DBMS. Please review the PostgreSQL documentation for details on how to configure the database.

The following image illustrates the various interactions of these key components:


Basically, the backend provides the cryptographic protocol support, stores Taler-specific financial information in a DBMS and communicates with the GNU Taler exchange over the Internet. The frontend accesses the backend via a RESTful API. As a result, the frontend never has to directly communicate with the exchange, and also does not deal with sensitive data. In particular, the merchant’s signing keys and bank account information are encapsulated within the Taler merchant backend.

A typical deployment will additionally include a full-blown Web server (like Apache or Nginx). Such a Web server would be responsible for TLS termination and access control to the /private/ and /management/ API endpoints of the merchant backend. Please carefully review the section on secure setup before deploying a Taler merchant backend into production.

3.2. Terminology

This chapter describes some of the key concepts used throughout the manual.

3.2.1. Instances

The backend allows a single HTTP server to support multiple independent shops with distinct business entities sharing a single backend. An instance is the name or identifier that allows the single HTTP server to determine which shop a request is intended for. Each instance has its own base URL in the REST API of the merchant backend (/instances/$INSTANCE/). Each instance can use its own bank accounts and keys for signing contracts. All major accounting functionality is separate per instance. Access to each instance is controlled via a bearer token (to be set in the HTTP “Authorization” header). All instances share the same database, top-level HTTP(S) address and the main Taler configuration (especially the accepted currency and exchanges).


This documentation does not use the term “user” or “username” in conjunction with instances as that might create confusion between instances with paying customers using the system. We also do not use the term “account” in conjunction with instances, as that might cause confusion with bank accounts. That said, conceptually it is of course acceptable to consider instances to be the “users” or “accounts” of a merchant backend and the bearer token is equivalent to a passphrase.

3.2.2. Instance Bank Accounts

To receive payments, an instance must have configured one or more bank accounts. When configuring the bank account of an instance, one should ideally also provide the address and credentials of an HTTP service implementing the Taler Bank Revenue HTTP API. Given such a service, the GNU Taler merchant backend can automatically reconcile wire transfers from the exchange to the merchant’s bank account with the orders that are being settled.

This documentation exclusively uses the term account for the bank accounts of a merchant or shop that may be associated with an instance.

3.2.3. Inventory

The Taler backend offers inventory management as an optional function. Inventory is tracked per instance and consists of products sold in units. Inventory can be finite (physical stock) or infinite (for digital products). Products may include previews (images) to be shown to the user as well as other meta-data. Inventory management allows the frontend to lock products, reserving a number of units from stock for a particular (unpaid) order. The backend can keep track of how many units of a product remain in stock and ensure that the number of units sold does not exceed the number of units in stock.

Inventory management is optional, and it is possible for the frontend to include products in orders that are not in the inventory. The frontend can also override prices of products in the inventory or set a total price for an order that is different from the price of the sum of the products in the order.

3.2.4. Orders and Contracts

In Taler, users pay merchants for orders. An order is first created by the merchant. To create an order, the merchant must specify the specific terms of the order. Order terms include details such as the total amount to be paid, payment fees the merchant is willing to cover, the set of products to deliver, a delivery location and many other details. The merchant API specification specifies the full set of possible order terms.

After an order is created, it is claimed by a wallet. Once an order is claimed by a specific wallet, only that wallet will be able to pay for this order, to the exclusion of other wallets even if they see the same order URL. Sharing order URLs is explicitly allowed: if a user shares an order URL with another user, that other user should be given the opportunity to purchase the same product.

To prevent unauthorized wallets from claiming an order, merchants can specify that claims require authorization in the form of a claim token. This is useful in case the order ID is predictable (say because an existing order ID scheme with predictable order IDs from the merchant frontend is used) and at the same time malicious actors claiming orders is problematic (say because of limited stocks). The use of claim tokens is optional, but if a claim token is used, it must be provided to the wallet as part of the order URI.

Additionally, when stocks are limited, you can configure Taler to set a product lock on items (say, while composing the shopping cart). These locks will ensure that the limited stock is respected when making offers to consumers.

A wallet may pay for a claimed order, at which point the order turns into a (paid) contract. Orders have a configurable expiration date (the pay_deadline) after which the commercial offer expires and any stock of products locked by the order will be automatically released, allowing the stock to be sold in other orders. When an unpaid order expires, the customer must request a fresh order if they still want to make a purchase.

Once a contract has been paid, the merchant should fulfill the contract. It is possible for the merchant to refund a contract order, for example if the contract cannot be fulfilled after all. Refunds are only possible after the customer paid and before the exchange has wired the payment to the merchant. Once the funds have been wired, refunds are no longer allowed by the Taler exchange. The wire deadline specifies the latest point in time by which an exchange must wire the funds, while the (earlier) refund deadline specifies the earliest point in time when an exchange may wire the funds. Thus, refunds are always possible between the time of purchase and the refund deadline, but may remain possible until the wire deadline.

Contract information is kept for legal reasons in the merchant database. The main legal reason is typically to provide tax records in case of a tax audit. After the legal expiration (by default: a decade), contract information is deleted when running the garbage collector using taler-merchant-dbinit.

3.2.5. Templates

Usually, a merchant must use an authenticated endpoint to create an order and then share the link to the order with a wallet. Templates are a mechanism that allows wallets to create their own orders directly, using a public endpoint. The template fixes some properties of the contracts created from it, while other details may be left for the customer to provide. Templates are useful in cases where the point-of-sale of a merchant is offline (and thus cannot setup an order), or even in cases where a simple static QR code is desired to accept payments or donations.

When generating a template, the “summary” text of the contract and the “amount” to be paid by the customer can be fixed or left for the customer to specify. If the customer is expected to provide either or both of these values, the template link (or QR code) can specify a default value. For example, a cafeteria with a fixed price lunch may use a “lunch” template with both values fixed to the lunch price and the “lunch” product, a bakery might fix the summary to “baked goods” but allow the customer to enter the amount based on the total price of the items being bought, and a charity may allow donating an arbitrary amount and summary message while also suggesting default values.

If an offline merchant wants to confirm that a customer did actually pay the agreed amount using an order derived from a template, they can associate an OTP device with the template.

3.2.6. OTP Devices

A One-Time-Password (OTP) generator is a device or application that generates a 4 to 8 digit code typically used for authentication. The widely used TOTP standard is described in RFC 6238. For GNU Taler merchant backends, OTP devices are used as a way to assure a merchant without network connectivity that a customer made a digital payment. The idea is described in depth in our SUERF Policy Brief. To use this method, a merchant must configure the OTP device’s shared secret in the merchant backend, and then associate the OTP device with a Templates. Once the customer has paid, they are given a list of OTP codes which must be shown to the merchant who can check that at least one of the codes matches their OTP device, proving that the customer made the payment.

3.2.7. Transfers

The Taler backend can be used to verify that the exchange correctly wired all of the funds to the merchant. However, if no Taler Bank Revenue HTTP API was provided for the respective bank account, the backend does not have access to the incoming wire transfers of the merchant’s bank account. In this case, merchants should manually provide the backend with wire transfer data that specifies the wire transfer subject and the amount that was received. Given this information, the backend can detect and report any irregularities that might arise.

3.2.8. Webhooks

A webhook is a pre-defined HTTP request that the GNU Taler merchant backend will make upon certain events, such as an order being paid or refunded. When the configured event happens, the merchant backend will make an HTTP request to the endpoint configured in the webhook configuration, possibly sending selected data about the event to the respective Web service. Webhooks can be used to trigger additional business logic outside of the GNU Taler merchant backend.

3.3. Installation

This chapter describes how to install the GNU Taler merchant backend.

3.3.1. Installing the GNU Taler binary packages on Debian

To install the GNU Taler Debian packages, first ensure that you have the right Debian distribution. At this time, the packages are built for Debian bookworm.

You need to add a file to import the GNU Taler packages. Typically, this is done by adding a file /etc/apt/sources.list.d/taler.list that looks like this:

deb [signed-by=/etc/apt/keyrings/taler-systems.gpg] bookworm main

Next, you must import the Taler Systems SA public package signing key into your keyring and update the package lists:

# wget -O /etc/apt/keyrings/taler-systems.gpg \
# apt update


You may want to verify the correctness of the Taler Systems SA key out-of-band.

Now your system is ready to install the official GNU Taler binary packages using apt.

To install the Taler merchant backend, you can now simply run:

# apt install taler-merchant

Note that the package does not complete the integration of the backend with the HTTP reverse proxy (typically with TLS certificates). A configuration fragment for Nginx or Apache will be placed in /etc/{apache,nginx}/conf-available/taler-merchant.conf. You must furthermore still configure the database and the instances, and may need to extend the fragment with access control restrictions for non-default instances.

3.3.2. Installing the GNU Taler binary packages on Trisquel

To install the GNU Taler Trisquel packages, first ensure that you have the right Trisquel distribution. Packages are currently available for Trisquel GNU/Linux 10.0. Simply follow the same instructions provided for Ubuntu.

3.3.3. Installing the GNU Taler binary packages on Ubuntu

To install the GNU Taler Ubuntu packages, first ensure that you have the right Ubuntu distribution. At this time, the packages are built for Ubuntu Lunar and Ubuntu Jammy. Make sure to have universe in your /etc/apt/sources.list (after main) as we depend on some packages from Ubuntu universe.

A typical /etc/apt/sources.list.d/taler.list file for this setup would look like this for Ubuntu Lunar:

deb [signed-by=/etc/apt/keyrings/taler-systems.gpg] lunar taler-lunar

For Ubuntu Mantic use this instead:

deb [signed-by=/etc/apt/keyrings/taler-systems.gpg] mantic taler-mantic

For Ubuntu Noble use this instead:

deb [signed-by=/etc/apt/keyrings/taler-systems.gpg] noble taler-noble

Next, you must import the Taler Systems SA public package signing key into your keyring and update the package lists:

# wget -O /etc/apt/keyrings/taler-systems.gpg \
# apt update


You may want to verify the correctness of the Taler Systems key out-of-band.

Now your system is ready to install the official GNU Taler binary packages using apt.

To install the Taler merchant backend, you can now simply run:

# apt install taler-merchant

Note that the package does not complete the integration of the backend with the HTTP reverse proxy (typically with TLS certificates). A configuration fragment for Nginx or Apache will be placed in /etc/{apache,nginx}/conf-available/taler-merchant.conf. You must furthermore still configure the database and the instances, and may need to extend the fragment with access control restrictions for non-default instances.

3.3.4. Installing from source

The following instructions will show how to install a GNU Taler merchant backend from source.

The package sources can be find in our download directory.

GNU Taler components version numbers follow the MAJOR.MINOR.MICRO format. The general rule for compatibility is that MAJOR and MINOR must match. Exceptions to this general rule are documented in the release notes. For example, Taler merchant 1.3.0 should be compatible with Taler exchange 1.4.x as the MAJOR version matches. A MAJOR version of 0 indicates experimental development, and you are expected to always run all of the latest releases together (no compatibility guarantees).

First, the following packages need to be installed before we can compile the backend:

  • “Sphinx RTD Theme” Python package aka python3-sphinx-rtd-theme on Debian-based systems (for GNUnet documentation support, can be omitted if GNUnet is configured with --disable-documentation)

  • libsqlite3 >= 3.16.2

  • GNU libunistring >= 0.9.3

  • libcurl >= 7.26 (or libgnurl >= 7.26)

  • libqrencode >= 4.0.0 (Taler merchant only)

  • GNU libgcrypt >= 1.6 (1.10 or later highly recommended)

  • libsodium >= 1.0

  • libargon2 >= 20171227

  • libjansson >= 2.7

  • PostgreSQL >= 15, including libpq

  • GNU libmicrohttpd >= 0.9.71

  • GNUnet >= 0.20 (from source tarball)

  • Python3 with jinja2

If you are on Debian stable or later, the following command may help you install these dependencies:

# apt-get install \
  libqrencode-dev \
  libsqlite3-dev \
  libltdl-dev \
  libunistring-dev \
  libsodium-dev \
  libargon2-dev \
  libcurl4-gnutls-dev \
  libgcrypt20-dev \
  libjansson-dev \
  libpq-dev \
  libmicrohttpd-dev \
  python3-jinja2 \

Before you install GNUnet, you must download and install the dependencies mentioned in the previous section, otherwise the build may succeed, but could fail to export some of the tooling required by GNU Taler.

On Ubuntu, you also need to install pkg-config, for example:

$ apt-get install pkg-config

To install GNUnet, unpack the tarball and change into the resulting directory, then proceed as follows:

$ ./configure [--prefix=GNUNETPFX]
$ # Each dependency can be fetched from non standard locations via
$ # the '--with-<LIBNAME>' option. See './configure --help'.
$ make
# make install
# ldconfig

If you did not specify a prefix, GNUnet will install to /usr/local, which requires you to run the last step as root. The ldconfig command (also run as root) makes the shared object libraries (.so files) visible to the various installed programs.

Please note that unlike most packages, if you want to run the make check command, you should run it only after having done make install. The latter ensures that necessary binaries are copied to the right place.

In any case, if make check fails, please consider filing a bug report with the Taler bug tracker.

There is no need to actually run a GNUnet peer to use the Taler merchant backend – all the merchant needs from GNUnet is a number of headers and libraries!

After installing GNUnet, unpack the GNU Taler exchange tarball, change into the resulting directory, and proceed as follows:

$ ./configure [--prefix=EXCHANGEPFX] \
$ # Each dependency can be fetched from non standard locations via
$ # the '--with-<LIBNAME>' option. See './configure --help'.
$ make
# make install

If you did not specify a prefix, the exchange will install to /usr/local, which requires you to run the last step as root. You have to specify --with-gnunet=/usr/local if you installed GNUnet to /usr/local in the previous step.

There is no need to actually run a Taler exchange to use the Taler merchant backend – all the merchant needs from the Taler exchange is a few headers and libraries!

Please note that unlike most packages, if you want to run the make check command, you should run it only after having done make install. The latter ensures that necessary binaries are copied to the right place.

In any case, if make check fails, please consider filing a bug report with the Taler bug tracker.

The following steps assume all dependencies are installed.

First, unpack the GNU Taler merchant tarball and change into the resulting directory. Then, use the following commands to build and install the merchant backend:

$ ./configure [--prefix=PFX] \
              [--with-gnunet=GNUNETPFX] \
$ # Each dependency can be fetched from non standard locations via
$ # the '--with-<LIBNAME>' option. See './configure --help'.
$ make
# make install

If you did not specify a prefix, the exchange will install to /usr/local, which requires you to run the last step as root.

You have to specify --with-exchange=/usr/local and/or --with-gnunet=/usr/local if you installed the exchange and/or GNUnet to /usr/local in the previous steps.

Depending on the prefixes you specified for the installation and the distribution you are using, you may have to edit /etc/, adding lines for GNUNETPFX/lib/ and EXCHANGEPFX/lib/ and PFX/lib/ (replace the prefixes with the actual paths you used). Afterwards, you should run ldconfig. Without this step, it is possible that the linker may not find the installed libraries and launching the Taler merchant backend would then fail.

Please note that unlike most packages, if you want to run the make check command, you should run it only after having done make install. The latter ensures that necessary binaries are copied to the right place.

In any case, if make check fails, please consider filing a bug report with the Taler bug tracker.

3.4. How to configure the merchant backend

The installation already provides reasonable defaults for most of the configuration options. However, some must be provided, in particular the database that the backend should use. By default, the file $HOME/.config/taler.conf is where the Web shop administrator specifies configuration values that augment or override the defaults. Note that when using our binary packages, the systemd service files force the use of /etc/taler/taler.conf as the main configuration file.

3.4.1. Configuration format

All GNU Taler components are designed to possibly share the same configuration files. When installing a GNU Taler component, the installation deploys default values in configuration files located at ${prefix}/share/taler/config.d/ where ${prefix} is the installation prefix. Different components must be installed to the same prefix.

In order to override these defaults, the user can write a custom configuration file and either pass it to the component at execution time using the -c option, or name it taler.conf and place it under $HOME/.config/ which is where components will look by default. Note that the systemd service files pass -c /etc/taler/taler.conf, thus making /etc/taler/taler.conf the primary location for the configuration.

A config file is a text file containing sections, and each section contains maps options to their values. Configuration files follow basically the INI syntax:

value1 = string
value2 = 23

value21 = string
value22 = /path22

Comments start with a hash (#). Throughout the configuration, it is possible to use $-substitution for options relating to names of files or directories. It is also possible to provide defaults values for those variables that are unset, by using the following syntax: ${VAR:-default}. There are two ways a user can set the value of $-prefixable variables:

  1. by defining them under a [paths] section:

  2. or by setting them in the environment:

    $ export VAR=/x

The configuration loader will give precedence to variables set under [path] over environment variables.

The utility taler-config, which gets installed along with the exchange, can be used get and set configuration values without directly editing the configuration file. The option -f is particularly useful to resolve pathnames, when they use several levels of $-expanded variables. See taler-config --help.

The repository git:// contains example code for generating configuration files under deployment/netzbon/.

3.4.2. Backend options

The following table describes the options that commonly need to be modified. Here, the notation [$SECTION]/$OPTION denotes the option $OPTION under the section [$SECTION] in the configuration file. Service address

The service address specifies where the taler-merchant-httpd should listen for requests. When using the Debian/Ubuntu packages, these options will already be configured correctly for the included Nginx and Apache configurations and will not need any changes.

The following option sets the transport protocol used by the merchant backend:

SERVE = unix # or tcp

If this option is set to

  • tcp then we need to set the TCP port in [MERCHANT]/PORT;

  • unix then we need to set the unix domain socket path and mode in [MERCHANT]/UNIXPATH and [MERCHANT]/UNIXPATH_MODE. The latter takes the usual permission mask given as a number, e.g. 660 for user/group read-write access.

The frontend can then connect to the backend over HTTP using the specified address. If frontend and backend run within the same operating system, the use of a UNIX domain socket is recommended to avoid accidentally exposing the backend to the network.

To run the Taler backend on TCP port 8888, use:

SERVE = tcp
PORT = 8888


If you need to change where the taler-merchant-httpd listens for requests, you should edit /etc/taler/merchant-overrides.conf. By default, the Taler merchant package will use a UNIX domain socket at /run/taler/merchant-httpd/merchant-http.sock. For the best possible security it is recommended to leave this in place and configure a reverse proxy (Nginx or Apache) as described below.

When using the Debian/Ubuntu packages, the use of a UNIX domain socket is already pre-configured in the /etc/taler/conf.d/merchant.conf configuration file. Suitable reverse proxy configuration file templates (taler-merchant) are be installed in the respective sites-available directories of Apache and Nginx. Currency

Which currency the Web shop deals in, i.e. “EUR” or “USD”, is specified using the option

CURRENCY = EUR # or USD, ...

When testing with the Taler demonstration exchange at you must set this value to KUDOS:



When using the Debian/Ubuntu packages, these options should be configured in the /etc/taler/taler.conf configuration file (alternatively, you can also edit /etc/taler/merchant-overrides.conf). However, you must edit the taler.conf file manually and must not use taler-config to do this, as that would inline the include directives and destroy the carefully setup path structure. Database

In principle it is possible for the backend to support different DBMSs. The option

DB = postgres

specifies which DBMS is to be used. However, currently only the value postgres is supported. This is also the default.

In addition to selecting the DBMS software, the backend requires DBMS-specific options to access the database.


The taler-merchant-dbconfig tool can be used to automate the database setup. When using the Debian/Ubuntu packages, the user should already have been created, so you can just run the tool without any arguments and should have a working database configuration.

For the postgres backend, you need to specify:

CONFIG = "postgres:///talermerchant"

This option specifies a PostgreSQL access path, typically using the format postgres:///$DBNAME, where $DBNAME is the name of the PostgreSQL database you want to use (here, talermerchant on the local machine). Suppose $USER is the name of the user who will run the backend process (usually taler-merchant-httpd). Then, you need to first run:

$ sudo -u postgres createuser -d $USER

as the PostgreSQL database administrator (usually postgres) to grant $USER the ability to create new databases. Next, you should as $USER run:

$ createdb $DBNAME

to create the backend’s database. Here, $DBNAME must match the database name given in the configuration file.

Now you should be able to create the tables and indices. To do this, run as $USER (usually taler-merchant-httpd):

$ taler-merchant-dbinit

You may improve your security posture if you now REVOKE the rights to CREATE, DROP or ALTER tables from $USER. However, if you do so, please be aware that you may have to temporarily GRANT those rights again when you update the merchant backend. For details on how to REVOKE or GRANT these rights, consult the PostgreSQL documentation.


Taler may store sensitive business and customer data in the database. Any operator SHOULD thus ensure that backup operations are encrypted and secured from unauthorized access. Exchange

To add an exchange to the list of trusted payment service providers, you create a section with a name that starts with “MERCHANT-EXCHANGE-”. In that section, the following options need to be configured:

  • The EXCHANGE_BASE_URL option specifies the exchange’s base URL. For example, to use the Taler demonstrator, specify:

  • The MASTER_KEY option specifies the exchange’s master public key in base32 encoding. For the Taler demonstrator, use:


You can find out this key by running curl | jq .master_public_key.

  • The CURRENCY option specifies the exchange’s currency. For the Taler demonstrator, use:


Note that multiple exchanges can be added to the system by using different identifiers in place of KUDOS in the example above. One exchange will only ever support a single currency; thus, if you need support for multiple currencies, you must add multiple exchanges.

The merchant already ships with a default configuration that contains the merchant-exchange-kudos section from above.


Manually setting up exchanges is only recommended under special circumstances. In general, GNU Taler distributions will include trustworthy exchanges (for each currency) in the default configuration, and there is rarely a good reason for trusting an exchange that has no relationship with the GNU Taler development team.

3.4.3. Sample backend configuration

The following is an example for a complete backend configuration:


PORT = 8888
DATABASE = postgres

CONFIG = postgres:///taler-merchant

# If currency does not match [taler] section, the exchange
# will be ignored!

Given the above configuration, the backend will use a PostgreSQL database named donations running on the same host.

The backend will deposit the coins it receives to the exchange at, which has the master key FH1Y8ZMHCTPQ0YFSZECDH8C9407JR3YN0MF1706PTG24Q4NEWGV0.

3.4.4. Launching the backend

Assuming you have configured everything correctly, you can launch the merchant backend as $USER using (to provide a trivial example):

$ taler-merchant-httpd &
$ taler-merchant-webhook &
$ taler-merchant-wirewatch &
$ taler-merchant-depositcheck &
$ taler-merchant-exchange &

To ensure these processes run always in the background and also after rebooting, you should use systemd, cron or some other init system of your operating system to launch the process. You should also periodically re-start these services to prevent them from exhausing the memory utilization of the PostgreSQL database. Consult the documentation of your operating system for how to start and stop daemons.


When using the Debian/Ubuntu packages, the systemd configuration will already exist. You only need to enable and start the service using systemctl enable and systemctl start Additionally, you should review the /etc/apache2/sites-available/taler-merchant.conf or /etc/nginx/sites-available/taler-merchant (these files contain additional instructions to follow), symlink it to sites-enabled/ and restart your HTTP server. After that, you should be able to visit the merchant backend at the respective HTTP(S) endpoint.

If everything worked as expected, the command

$ wget -O - http://localhost:8888/config

should return some basic configuration status data about the service.

Please note that your backend might then be globally reachable without any access control. You can either:

  • Use the --auth=$TOKEN command-line option to taler-merchant-httpd to set an access token to be provided in an Authorize: Bearer $TOKEN HTTP header. Note that this can be used at anytime to override access control, but remains only in effect until a first instance is created or an existing instance authentication setting is modified.

  • Set the TALER_MERCHANT_TOKEN environment variable to $TOKEN for the same effect. This method has the advantage of $TOKEN not being visible as a command-line interface to other local users on the same machine.

  • Set up an instance with an authentication token before some unauthorized person has a chance to access the backend. As the backend is useless without any instance and the chances of remote attackers during the initial configuration is low, this is probably sufficient for most use-cases. Still, keep the first two scenarios in mind in case you ever forget your access token!

Production systems should additionally be configured to bind to a UNIX domain socket and use TLS for improved network privacy, see Secure setup.

3.5. Instance setup

We recommend the use of the single-page administration application (SPA) that is served by default at the base URL of the merchant backend. You can use it to perform all steps described in this section (and more!), using a simple Web interface. Alternatively, you can also use the wget commands given below.

Regardless of which approach you use, the first step for using the backend involves the creation of a default instance. The default instance can also create, configure or delete other instances, similar to the root account on UNIX. When no instance exists and taler-merchant-httpd was started without the --auth option, then the backend is reachable without any access control (unless you configured some in the reverse proxy).

The following documentation shows how to handle any instance. Thus, if you want to have multiple instances, you may need to perform the steps multiple times, once for each instance.


A potential security concern is that normal API usage leaks instance existence. This means unauthorized users can distinguish between the case where the instance does not exist (HTTP 404) and the case where access is denied (HTTP 403). This is concern can be addressed using a properly configured reverse proxy.

3.5.1. Instance setup with the SPA

In order to setup an instance, you need the merchant backend to already be running, and you must either have the credentials for the “default” instance, or no instance must be configured at all yet.

To start, point your browser to $PROTO://backend.$DOMAIN_NAME/, replacing “$PROTO” with “https” or (rarely) “http” and “$DOMAIN_NAME” with your organizations DNS domain or subdomain.


The label “backend” here is also just a suggestion, your administrator can in principle choose any name.

You should be welcomed by the following merchant backoffice page:


After supplying the required fields, primarily the name of your organization and the desired access token, click confirm. You can change the instance settings later via the Settings entry in the menu on the left.

3.5.2. Instance setup without the Web interface

Instances can be created by POSTing a request to /management/instances without using the Web interface. This could be useful if you want to create many instances programmatically. To create an instance without the Web interface create a file instance.json with an InstanceConfigurationMessage:

  "id" : "default",
  "name": "Example Inc.",
  "address": { "country" : "zz" },
  "auth": { "method" : "external"} ,
  "jurisdiction": { "country" : "zz" },
  "use_stefan": true,
  "default_wire_transfer_delay": { "d_ms" : 1209600000 },
  "default_pay_delay": { "d_ms" : 1209600000 }

The name field will be shown as the name of your shop. The address field is expected to contain your shop’s physical address. The various defaults specify defaults for transaction fees your shop is willing to cover, how long offers made to the customer are valid, and how long the exchange has before it must wire the funds to your bank account. Those defaults can be modified for individual orders. For details, see the contract terms specification.

You can then create the instance using:

$ wget --post-file=instance.json http://localhost:8888/management/instances

The base URL for the instance will then be http://localhost:8888/instances/default. You can create additional instances by changing the id value to identifies other than default.

Endpoints to modify (reconfigure), permanently disable (while keeping the data) or purge (deleting all associated data) instances exist as well and are documented in the Merchant Backend API documentation.

3.6. Instance account setup

Before you can use an instance productively, you need to configure one or more bank accounts. These bank accounts will be provided to the Taler exchange operator to tell it where to wire the income from your sales. Every bank account has an associated wire method which determines how an exchange can transfer the funds. The most commonly supported wire method is iban, which implies that bank accounts are identified by IBAN numbers and wire transfers are to be executed between IBAN accounts. For regional currency setups, the wire method could also be x-taler-bank.


When using a regional currency, you need to first create a bank account at the regional bank. You may need to contact the respective administrator who can set one up. After being able to login to the new bank account, you can see your bank account number by clicking on the Welcome, $USERNAME message in the profile page. Next to the bank account number, you can find a convenient button to copy the number to the clipboard.

Not every exchange will support every wire method, and if you do not add a bank account with a wire method that is supported by a particular exchange, then you will not be able to receive payments via that exchange even if you configured the merchant backend to trust that exchange.

The simplest way to configure an account is to use the Web interface which has specific forms for different wire methods. First, select Bank account at the left of the page. The following page should be shown:


Click on the blue “+” sign on the top right of the page to add a new bank account. The following page should appear:


First, you should select the wire method, after which the dialog will show you additional fields specific to the wire method. For example, if youchoose iban as the account type, the following page should appear:


Specifying the revenue gateway with username and password is optional and discussed in section Automatic Settlement Data Import below.

After providing the details and confirming, the shop is ready to generate orders and accept payments.

3.6.1. Detecting Settlement: Manually Adding Transfers

The exchange may aggregate many small amounts into one larger wire transfer. If you want to safely determine for which orders have been settled (final payment from the exchange has been received), the backend must learn about the wire transfers made into your bank account. Basically, as a secure system, we do not simply trust a claim by the exchange that it would transfer the money, but we allow each merchant to check settlements.

An easy (but somewhat tedious) way to check settlements is to manually add every wire transfer that a merchant bank account has received from the exchange with the total amount and the wire transfer subject. Given this information, the merchant backend will inquire with the exchange which individual payments were aggregated, check that the total amount is correct, and will then flag the respective contracts as wired.

You can manually enter wire transfers under Transfers. However, this is tedious, and so if your banking setup supports it, we highly recommend using the automatic settlement data import.

3.6.2. Automatic Settlement Data Import

To automatically import settlement data, you need to provide the merchant backend with the address and access credentials of a Taler Bank Revenue HTTP API for each bank account of an instance. The revenue API endpoint will allow the merchant backend to obtain a list of all incoming wire transfers into your bank account and automatically import them into the list of confirmed wire transfers.

Note that setting up a revenue API endpoint will usually require you to first ask your bank for EBICS access and to set up Nexus Manual to provide the revenue API endpoint. The Bank Setup Manual used by regional currency setups also provides a revenue API endpoint at $BANK_URL/accounts/$ACCOUNT_NAME/taler-revenue/. Thus, when using a regional currency setup, simply use the $BANK_URL of your bank and specify your bank login name and password in the Instance account setup dialog.

3.7. Manually creating an order using the SPA

Click on Orders at the top left corner of the merchant backoffice page; the following page should appear


After having filled the required fields, the interface should show the following page with the related links to check the status of the order and let wallets pay for it.


In order to test the setup, it should be now possible to use the command line wallet to withdraw Taler coins and spend them to pay for the order we just created.

In practice, you will rarely if ever setup orders manually like this. Instead, a GNU Taler e-commerce front-end or the Merchant Point of Sale App will do this on-demand. Here, you will only need to provide the respective front-ends with the URL of your instance (e.g. https://backend.$DOMAIN/instances/$NAME) and your access token.

3.8. Secure setup

The Taler backend is deliberately simple in terms of support for access control or transport layer security (TLS). Thus, production setups must deploy the Taler backend behind an HTTP(S) server that acts as a reverse proxy, performs TLS termination and authentication and then forwards requests to the backend.

3.8.1. Using UNIX domain sockets

To ensure that the merchant backend is not exposed directly to the network, you should bind the backend to a UNIX domain socket:

SERVE = unix
UNIXPATH = "/some/path/here.sock"

Do not use a UNIX domain socket path in “/tmp”: systemd (or other init systems) may give Web servers a private “/tmp” thereby hiding UNIX domain sockets created by other users/processes in “/tmp”.

If UNIX domain sockets are for some reason not possible, you may use a host-based firewall to block access to the TCP port of the merchant backend, but this is not recommended. If you do need a TCP socket, you should instead strongly consider using the “BIND_TO” option to at least bind it only to “localhost”.

3.8.2. Reverse proxy configuration Nginx

For Nginx, a possible basic reverse proxy configuration would be:

proxy_pass http://unix:/some/path/here.sock;
proxy_redirect off;
proxy_set_header Host $host;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Host "";
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Proto "https";

Note that the above assumes your domain name is and that you have TLS configured. Leave out the last line if your Nginx reverse proxy does not have HTTPS enabled. Make sure to restart the taler-merchant-httpd process after changing the SERVE configuration. Apache

In Apache, make sure you have mod_proxy, mod_proxy_http and mod_headers enabled:

$ a2enmod proxy
$ a2enmod proxy_http
$ a2enmod headers

Then configure your Apache reverse proxy like this (you may change the endpoint):

<Location "/">
ProxyPass "unix:/some/path/here.sock|"
RequestHeader add "X-Forwarded-Proto" "https"

Note that the above again assumes your domain name is and that you have TLS configured. Note that you must add the https header unless your site is not available via TLS.

3.8.3. Access control

All endpoints with /private/ in the URL must be restricted to authorized users of the respective instance. Specifically, the HTTP server must be configured to only allow access to $BASE_URL/private/ to the authorized users of the default instance, and to $BASE_URL/instances/$ID/private/ to the authorized users of the instance $ID.

By default, the GNU Taler merchant backend simply requires the respective HTTP requests to include an “Authorization” header with a “Bearer” token set to the respective shared secret which must begin with “secret-token:” (following RFC 8959).

Note that all of the other endpoints (without /private/) are expected to be fully exposed to the Internet, and wallets may have to interact with those endpoints directly without client authentication.

3.8.4. Status code remapping

Normal API usage leaks instance existence information. Distinguishing between 404 (Not found) and 403 (Forbidden) is useful for diagnostics.

For higher security (by leaking less information), you can add the following fragment, which remaps all 404 response codes to 403. Nginx

error_page 404 =403 /empty.gif; Apache

cond %{STATUS} =404
set-status 403

3.9. Customization

3.9.2. Terms of Service

The service has an endpoint “/terms” to return the terms of service (in legal language) of the service operator. Client software show these terms of service to the user when the user is first interacting with the service. Terms of service are optional for experimental deployments, if none are configured, the service will return a simple statement saying that there are no terms of service available.

To configure the terms of service response, there are two options in the configuration file for the service:

  • TERMS_ETAG: The current “Etag” to return for the terms of service. This value must be changed whenever the terms of service are updated. A common value to use would be a version number. Note that if you change the TERMS_ETAG, you MUST also provide the respective files in TERMS_DIR (see below).

  • TERMS_DIR: The directory that contains the terms of service. The files in the directory must be readable to the service process.

3.9.3. Privacy Policy

The service has an endpoint “/pp” to return the terms privacy policy (in legal language) of the service operator. Clients should show the privacy policy to the user when the user explicitly asks for it, but it should not be shown by default. Privacy policies are optional for experimental deployments, if none are configured, the service will return a simple statement saying that there is no privacy policy available.

To configure the privacy policy response, there are two options in the configuration file for the service:

  • PRIVACY_ETAG: The current “Etag” to return for the privacy policy. This value must be changed whenever the privacy policy is updated. A common value to use would be a version number. Note that if you change the PRIVACY_ETAG, you MUST also provide the respective files in PRIVACY_DIR (see below).

  • PRIVACY_DIR: The directory that contains the privacy policy. The files in the directory must be readable to the service process.

3.9.6. Adding translations

Translations must be available in subdirectories locale/$LANGUAGE/LC_MESSAGES/$ETAG.po. To start translating, you first need to add a new language:

$ taler-terms-generator -i $ETAG -l $LANGUAGE

Here, $LANGUAGE should be a two-letter language code like de or fr. The command will generate a file locale/$LANGUAGE/LC_MESSAGES/$ETAG.po which contains each English sentence or paragraph in the original document and an initially empty translation. Translators should update the .po file. Afterwards, simply re-run

$ taler-terms-generator -i $ETAG

to make the current translation(s) available to the service.


You must restart the service whenever adding or updating legal documents or their translations.

3.9.8. Template Customization

The installation process will install various HTML templates to be served to trigger the wallet interaction. You may change those templates to your own design. The templating language used is C implementation of mustache, and the templates are in the share/taler/merchant/templates/ directory.

The file names must be of the form $NAME.$LANG.must where $NAME is the name of the template and $LANG is the 2-letter language code of the template. English templates must exist and will be used as a fallback. If the browser (user-agent) has provided language preferences in the HTTP header and the respective language exists, the correct language will be automatically served.

The following subsections give details about each of the templates. The subsection titles are the $NAME of the respective template. request_payment

Page shown to request the user to make a payment.

This template is instantiated using the following information:

  • taler_pay_uri: String; the taler://pay/ URI that must be given to the wallet to initiate the payment

  • taler_pay_qrcode_svg: Image; an SVG image of the QR code with the taler_pay_uri.

  • order_summary: String; a text summarizing the order

  • order_status_url: URL of the merchant backend where the order status can be found, useful for long-polling to check if the order has been paid offer_refund

Page shown to offer a customer a refund.

This template is instantiated using the following information:

  • taler_refund_uri: String; the taler://pay/ URI that must be given to the wallet to initiate the payment

  • taler_refund_qrcode_svg: Image; an SVG image of the QR code with the taler_pay_uri.

  • refund_amount: Amount; how much did the merchant refund

  • refund_taken: Amount; how much did the customer already take back in refunds

  • order_summary: String; a text summarizing the order show_order_details

Page shown to the user when they go back to the payment page but no payment is required and no refund is present.

This template is instantiated using the following information:

  • order_summary: String; a text summarizing the order

  • contract_terms: Object; the full contract terms (shoud probably not be shown in full!)

  • refund_amount: Amount; how much did the merchant refund

  • refund_taken: Amount; how much did the customer already take back in refunds

3.9.9. Static files

The merchant backend also has the ability to serve small static files under the /static/{FILENAME} endpoint. This is used by the templating logic to load a CSS file, but you can also put other resources such as images or JavaScript.

3.9.10. Internationalization

Both templates and static files can be internationalized. This is done by having the language of the resource be a part of the filename. For templates the format is {BASENAME}.{LANGUAGE}.must. The language is mandatory for templates, the default language is English (en).

For static files, the format is {BASENAME}.{LANGUAGE}.{EXT} for internationalized files, and {BASENAME}.{EXT} for resources that do not support internationalization. The HTTP client will always request /static/{BASENAME}.{EXT}. If {BASENAME}.{EXT} exists, that resource is returned. Otherwise, an internationalized file based on the language preferences indicated by the browser is returned.

3.9.11. Limitations

All of the static files must fit into memory and it must be possible for the process to hold open file handles for all of these files. You may want to increase the ulimit of the taler-merchant-httpd process if you have many static files. Note that Mustach templates do not increase the number of open files.

The backend determines the MIME type based on the file’s extension. The list of supported extensions is hard-coded and includes common text and image formats.

The current backend only provides a limited set of variables for the Mustach template expansion, and does not make use of scopes and other Mustach features.

3.10. Upgrade procedure

This section describes the general upgrade procedure. Please see the release notes for your specific version to check if a particular release has special upgrade requirements.

Please note that upgrades are ONLY supported for released version of the merchant. Attempting to upgrade from or to a version in Git is not supported and may result in subtle data loss.

To safely upgrade the merchant, you should first stop the existing taler-merchant-httpd process, backup your merchant database (see PostgreSQL manual), and then install the latest version of the code.

If you REVOKED database permissions, ensure that the rights to CREATE, DROP, and ALTER tables are GRANTed to $USER again. Then, run:

$ taler-merchant-dbinit

to upgrade the database to the latest schema. After that, you may again REVOKE the database permissions. Finally, restart the merchant services processes, either via your systemd or init system, or directly.

3.11. Advanced topics

3.11.1. taler-config

3.11.2. Using taler-config

The tool taler-config can be used to extract or manipulate configuration values; however, the configuration use the well-known INI file format and is generally better edited by hand to preserve comments and structure. Thus, taler-config should primarily be used to inspect or understand a configuration that is in place, and not to update it!


$ taler-config -s $SECTION

to list all of the configuration values in section $SECTION.


$ taler-config -s $SECTION -o $OPTION

to extract the respective configuration value for option $OPTION in section $SECTION.

Finally, to change a setting and clobber your entire configuration file structure, inlining all values and removing all comments, run

$ taler-config -s $SECTION -o $OPTION -V $VALUE

to set the respective configuration value to $VALUE. Note that you have to manually restart affected Taler components after you change the configuration to make the new configuration go into effect.

Some default options will use $-variables, such as $DATADIR within their value. To expand the $DATADIR or other $-variables in the configuration, pass the -f option to taler-config. For example, compare:

$ taler-config --section exchange-offline --option MASTER_PRIV_FILE
$ taler-config -f --section exchange-offline --option MASTER_PRIV_FILE

While the configuration file is typically located at $HOME/.config/taler.conf, an alternative location can be specified to any GNU Taler component using the -c option.

3.11.3. Database Scheme

The merchant database must be initialized using taler-merchant-dbinit. This tool creates the tables required by the Taler merchant to operate. The tool also allows you to reset the Taler merchant database, which is useful for test cases but should never be used in production. Finally, taler-merchant-dbinit has a function to garbage collect a database, allowing administrators to purge records that are no longer required.

The database scheme used by the merchant looks as follows:


3.11.4. Benchmarking

The merchant codebase offers the taler-merchant-benchmark tool to populate the database with fake payments. The main goal of the benchmarking tool is to serve as a starting point (!) for merchants that are interested in developing stress tests to see how far their infrastructure can scale. As is, it currently is not actually good at stressing the payment system.

The script can be used to launch all required services and clients. However, the resulting deployment is simplistic (everything on the local machine, one single-threaded process per service type) and not optimized for performance at all. However, this can still be useful to assess the performance impact of changes to the code or configuration.

Various configuration files that can be used in the code snippets in this section can be found in the src/merchant-tools/ directory of the merchant. These are generally intended as starting points. Note that the configuration files ending in .edited are created by and contain some options that are determined at runtime by the setup logic provided by

See Taler Exchange Manual for how to use to setup the system and in particular on how to specify the bank to be used. Running taler-merchant-benchmark

You can run the tool as follows:

$ CONF=benchmark-rsa.conf
$ -emwt -c "$CONF" -f -u exchange-account-1
$ time taler-merchant-benchmark ordinary -c "$CONF".edited -u exchange-account-1 -f -p 20

The current tool has already a few options, but we expect that to deliver relevant results it will need to be customized to better reflect the workload of a particular merchant. This customization would at this point likely involve writing (C) code. We welcome contributions to make it easier to customize the benchmark and/or to cover more realistic workloads from the start.

The tool takes all of the values it needs from the command line, with some of them being common to all subcommands:

  • --exchange-account-section=SECTION Specifies which configuration section specifies the bank account for the exchange that should be used for the benchmark. For the example configuration above, the SECTION value provided must be exchange-account-exchange.

  • --fakebank Specifies that the benchmark should expect to interact with a fakebank (instead of libeufin).

The tool comes with two operation modes: ordinary, and corner. The first just executes normal payments, meaning that it uses the default instance and make sure that all payments get aggregated. The second gives the chance to leave some payments unaggregated, and also to use merchant instances other than the default (which is, actually, the one used by default by the tool).


The ability to drive the aggregation policy is useful for testing the back-office facility.

Any subcommand is also equipped with the canonical --help option, so feel free to issue the following command in order to explore all the possibilities. For example:

$ taler-merchant-benchmark corner --help

will show all the options offered by the corner mode. Among the most interesting, there are:

  • --two-coins=TC This option instructs the tool to perform TC many payments that use two coins, because normally only one coin is spent per payment.

  • --unaggregated-number=UN This option instructs the tool to perform UN (one coin) payments that will be left unaggregated.

As for the ordinary subcommand, it is worth explaining the following option:

  • --payments-number=PN Instructs the tool to perform PN payments.

3.12. Temporarily Abandoned Features

3.12.1. Installing Taler using Docker

This section provides instructions for the merchant backend installation using ‘Docker‘.

For security reasons, we run Docker against a VirtualBox instance, so the docker command should connect to a docker-machine instance that uses the VirtualBox driver.

Therefore, the needed tools are: “docker“, “docker-machine“, and “docker-compose“. Please refer to Docker’s official [1] documentation in order to get those components installed, as that is not in this manual’s scope.

Before starting to build the merchant’s image, make sure a “docker-machine“ instance is up and running.

Because all of the Docker source file are kept in our “deployment“ repository, we start by checking out the git:// codebase:

$ git clone git://

Now we actually build the merchant’s image. From the same directory as above:

$ cd deployment/docker/merchant/
$ docker-compose build

If everything worked as expected, the merchant is ready to be launched. From the same directory as the previous step:

# Recall: the docker-machine should be up and running.
$ docker-compose up

You should see some live logging from all the involved containers. At this stage of development, you should also ignore some (harmless) error message from postresql about already existing roles and databases.

To test if everything worked as expected, it suffices to issue a simple request to the merchant, for example:

$ wget -O - http://$(docker-machine ip)/
# A greeting message should be returned by the merchant.